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Large fiber and woven material manufacturing: a new industrial revolution based on fiber

large fiber is a technological breakthrough and cross integration based on the fields of materials, information, electromechanical, biology, energy and other disciplines. It is characterized by "intelligence, super energy, green". It has multi-functional, multi-structural, multi-component characteristics, and plays a high permeability, subversion A new generation of fiber that revolutionizes the effect (see white paper on Technological Development of large fiber industry, September 2018)

at present, a new Smart Fiber family based on advanced fiber materials, with multi-component, multi-structure and multi-function characteristics, which can sense, calculate, store energy, communicate and execute, has begun to appear and go to the market. Fudan, Zhejiang University, Donghua and other universities and research institutions have similar technology and product research and development, and some people have even registered companies to reduce the unstable friction force on a small scale. For example, the Li Qingwen team of the Suzhou Institute of nanotechnology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is developing high-performance nanofibers based on carbon nanotubes, and is committed to using new fiber varieties with super performance to replace carbon fibers monopolized by Japan. In addition, the Tao Xiaoming team of Hong Kong Polytechnic University is developing fiber-based intelligent wearable technology, which is committed to solving power generation, sensing and communication problems through fibers. The next generation of wearable devices will integrate these functions in high-performance fabrics, so as to realize the leap from external hanging to embedded and then to endogenous

big fibers:

cross domain and interdisciplinary cross fusion characteristics

big fibers have inherent cross domain and interdisciplinary cross characteristics. Its theoretical basis and technical route are also full of vitality. For example, under the guidance of structural optimization theory, develop multi-material, multi-structure and multi-functional intelligent fibers based on optical fibers; Under the guidance of nano theory, develop high-function fibers based on carbon nanotubes and graphene; Under the guidance of polymer design theory, develop ultra-high performance fibers from the molecular structure; Under the guidance of synthetic biology theory, create high-performance biological fibers through transgenic technology

the interdisciplinary and interdisciplinary cross integration will produce many completely new fiber varieties, of which a considerable proportion of fiber varieties have great commercial value, have a profound impact on many downstream industries, and fundamentally change the ecology of these industries, thus creating a huge emerging industry cluster. We call the large fiber related technologies, products and new industrial clusters formed around the downstream rich applications as the large fiber industry

in recent years, the development momentum of the large fiber industry has begun to show, and the new interdisciplinary and interdisciplinary Smart Fiber family is constantly "adding members". The high thermal conductivity fiber developed by Professor Chen Gang of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) subverts the traditional thermal insulation theory of polymer materials. Through tensile reconstruction, the polymer chains in the fiber are orderly arranged, and the fiber with "ideal" single crystal structure and high thermal conductivity is obtained; Professors from Stanford University developed PM2.5 filter membrane and nano porous polyethylene cloth made of silicon nanowire battery cathode and nano polymer fiber based on physical principles from the perspective of functional requirements; Changsheng textile technology development (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. uses cold transfer technology to accurately quantify printing instead of dyeing, overturning the printing and dyeing process that has used a large amount of diluted dye solution for thousands of years, realizing basically no water consumption and no emission printing and dyeing, and can directly print and dye high-precision functional lines and patterns on fabrics, becoming a platform technology for the development of intelligent electronic fabric industrialization

at the same time, the large fiber technology has broken through the manufacturing bottleneck of the original technology. For decades, spider silk has been unable to be produced with traditional chemical synthesis theories and methods. Nowadays, applying the theory of biosynthesis, the high-performance spider silk has been mass produced by regulating the protein molecules of silkworm and bacteria through spider genes. This is considered to be the most important textile material progress since the advent of nylon

compared with traditional materials such as steel and plastics, large fibers have obvious differentiation advantages in flexibility, lightweight, multi-function, high performance, green and intelligent. In the traditional advantageous application fields of high-performance steel such as automobile and aircraft manufacturing, in order to achieve higher flexibility, lightweight and high energy efficiency, the proportion of fiber composites has become higher and higher. At the end of 2018, some media reported an example of an intelligent carbon fiber car body, which can not only realize the lightweight of the car body, but also deform according to the wind resistance. The carbon fiber body is compounded with 3D technology (cutting, stamping, welding and other metal processing processes are completely eliminated), and the fiber with solar power generation function is mixed in the fabric, which can replace some batteries. The adoption of multi-functional carbon fiber greatly improves the cost performance of the whole vehicle. This is a typical application case where large fibers partially replace traditional materials

in fact, all previous industrial revolutions are inseparable from the redefinition of the relationship between man and man-made systems, focusing on "people-oriented". As we all know, more than 70% of human tissue is composed of fibers. After the green fiber with biocompatibility is superimposed with intelligent and multifunctional elements, the new generation of intelligent wearable system or human implantable system can collect human data, monitor human health, exert effective influence and help people improve their health and exercise level in the safest, lightest and most effective way. The "digital human" formed based on the collected data will become one of the most important assets in the artificial intelligence society. Only at this stage can social digitalization be truly realized, and big fibers will become the best bridge between the human body world, the physical world and the virtual information world

plaiting manufacturing:

multi-level innovative manufacturing technology from atoms to supersystems

American physicist Feynman raised a famous question: "if atoms can be arranged in the way we envision, what properties will materials have?" This problem enlightens polymer scientists to go out of the scope of traditional polymers, introduce controllable molecular heterogeneity and its related precise structures into synthetic polymers, expand the basic structure of synthetic polymers, and realize more precise functionalization. In the article "giant molecules: the intersection of chemistry, physics and Bioscience", written by Cheng zhengdi, academician of the American Academy of engineering, and others, the viewpoint of "from structure to function" was put forward, suggesting that we should develop from structural thinking to functional examination. For example, gauze was only used to bandage wounds in the past, but the intelligent gauze developed with large fibers has anti-inflammatory and therapeutic functions in addition to bandaging wounds, and can be connected with the telemedicine system to monitor the condition of patients

the thoughts of the above two scientists enlighten us that at the physical level, the discussion on large fibers should not only focus on the meso level such as fibers and fabrics, but also advance to the micro level, down to the basic level of molecules and atoms, and at the same time expand to the macro level, up to the level of devices and systems, and even supersystems (systems of systems). Therefore, the physical level of large fibers includes seven layers: atom molecule (chain) - fiber fabric - device - System - supersystem

in the past, we used to point to specific functions from the structural characteristics of fibers and the connection between them. Now, we start from the needs, determine the functionality, and then design the fiber structure. If necessary, we can integrate multiple components and structures to obtain the required functions

large fibers have the dual significance of material technology revolution and manufacturing technology revolution. It makes full use of existing textile and other advanced manufacturing technologies, and constantly develops new manufacturing technologies to carry out manufacturing activities at all levels, from atoms to supersystems. Such as gene technology or biosynthesis technology at the atomic and molecular level, hybridization and various polymer molecular synthesis technologies (polymers for fibers and matrices, carbon fiber precursors, ceramic fibers, cellulose and biopolymers, etc.); At the fiber and yarn level, there are wet or dry spinning technology, melt spinning technology, two-component spinning technology, nonwoven technology, short fiber technology and precision winding technology, etc; At the fabric and structure level, there are spacing technology, knitting, braiding, weaving, knitting, knitting connection, tissue engineering, membrane technology, knitting extrusion, structure winding technology, etc; At the level of functionalization and devices, there are sol-gel technology, dyeing and finishing technology, digital printing technology, nanotechnology, physical and chemical methods, coatings, electronic component integration, the development of sensing and executive characteristics, etc; At the level of intelligent system and super system, there are modeling and simulation, virtualization, automation and robotics, 3D printing (additive manufacturing), digitization, intelligence, green and sustainable manufacturing technology, etc

When the standard tensile specimen is in the tensile state, put an extensometer or stick a strain gauge on it

in addition, large fibers have subversive significance for the textile and its manufacturing process that has been followed for thousands of years, such as multi-material smart fibers can be made by spinning, multi-functional fabrics can be made by weaving and printing, and high-performance fabrics can be made by composite and mixing means

the manufacturing technology system corresponding to large fibers contains common equal material manufacturing methods in textile engineering, reduced material manufacturing methods used in conventional material processing, additive manufacturing or digital construction methods represented by 3D printing and robots. In addition, there are many unconventional and innovative manufacturing processes and methods to be further studied and developed

it can be said that the new manufacturing technology system from atom to super system based on large fibers has greatly enriched the manufacturing means, and is expected to become another kind of manufacturing mode of great significance and high value after the material reduction manufacturing represented by machine tools and the material addition manufacturing represented by 3D printing. For the first time, the experts of the working group of the big fiber industry creatively called it "woven material manufacturing". The word "Bian" not only reflects the spinning and weaving of fibers and yarns in the traditional sense, but also reflects the and tailoring of molecules and even atoms; It not only reflects the integration and structure at the fabric and device level, but also reflects the multi-dimensional digital programming at the system and super system level, which endows the object with the attributes of automation and intelligence

the new manufacturing technology system related to large fibers, named after braiding manufacturing, not only covers the conventional equal material manufacturing, reduced material manufacturing and emerging digital additive manufacturing technology, but also includes a large number of innovative cutting-edge manufacturing processes and technologies. The so-called "generation of materials, generation of processes, generation of equipment", the research and mastery of weaving manufacturing technology, as well as the development of corresponding R & D, manufacturing, testing and verification equipment, is the only way for big fiber to eventually move towards industrial application, and it is also a new "blue ocean" of manufacturing industry

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